Cold Injuries

 C

Introduction  
In high altitude a large number of casualties are caused by high altitude affects and due to extreme cold temperature.
1.         Common problems of High Altitude.
  (a)       Due to extreme cold (hypothermia, frost bite, trench foot, chill blains).
(b)       Effects due to low oxygen concentration (pulmonary edema, cerebral edema).
(c)        Due to extreme cold (hypothermia, frost bites, trench foot, chill blains).
(d)       Due to exposure to snow (snow blindness).
(e)       Due to solar radiation (sun burn).
(f)        Psychological problems.
2.         Hypothermia.  It is generalized cooling of body caused by exposure to extreme cold. Body temperature can be below 350c (950 f).
  (a)       Signs & symptoms.
    (i)         Shivering.
(ii)        Dizziness.
(iii)       Numbness.
(iv)       Confusion.
(v)        Weakness.
(vi)       Impaired judgment.
(vii)      Impaired vision.
(viii)     Drowsiness.
(ix)       Slow breathing and pulse rate.
(x)        Shock.
  (b)       First aid of hypothermia.
    (i)         Get victim out of cold.
(ii)        Give him dry and warm clothing.
(iii)       Warm body slowly.
(iv)       Give nothing orally unless he is fully conscious.
(v)        Treat shock.
(vi)       Give CPR if required.
(vii)      Seek professional medical attention immediately.
4.         Frostbite.        Superficial frostbite is localized cooling of a body part. Tissue exposed to extreme cold can begin to freeze over time, often causing permanent damage.
  (a)       Frost bite commonly effects.
    (i)         Hands.
(ii)        Feet.
(iii)       Nose & Ears. 
  (b)       Signs and symptoms.
    (i)         White, waxy skin color.
(ii)        Skin feels frozen to touch.
(iii)       Mottled, blotchy skin (as frostbite progresses).  
  (c)        First aid of frostbite.
    (i)         Handle effected area gently.
(ii)        Warm effected area slowly by applying heat to healthy parts of body.
(iii)       Avoid rubbing or putting pressure on site.
(iv)       Avoid applying direct heat.
(v)        Seek professional medical attention immediately.
(vi)       Keep patient warm and at rest.
   
 
 

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