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Equipment To Be Carried While Operating In Mountains




Equipment brought on an operation is carried in the pack worn on the body. The rucksack can hold much more than a climber can carry. This would be used to carry the following likely equipment:-


(a)       Cloths and footwear

(b)       Ropes and slings

(c)        Climbing equipment

(d)       Skiing equipment

(e)       Camping equipment

(f)        Rescuing equipment

(g)       Food and water


Choice of Equipment


Operational requirement will influence the choice of gear. This can be divided into the following:-


(a)       Personal Gear.  Emergency survival kit containing signaling material, fire starting material, food, water. Pocket items should include a knife, whistle, pressure bandage, notebook with pen or pencil, sunglasses, sun block and lip protection, map, compass and or altimeter.


(b)       Standard Gear.     Standard gear that can be individually worn or carried includes cushion sole socks, combat boots or mountain boots,  magazine pouches, and first aid kit, individual weapon, a large rucksack containing waterproof coat and trousers, polypropylene top, sweater, or fleece top, helmet, poncho, and sleeping bag.


(c).       Mountaineering Equipment and Specialized Gear. These are as follows:-


(i)         Sling rope or climbing harness.

(ii)        Utility cord(s).

(iii)       Plain carabiners.

(iv)       Locking carabiners.

(v)        Rappelling gloves.

(vi)       Rappel/belay device.

(vii)      Ice axe.

(viii)     Crampons.

(ix)       Climbing rope, one per climbing team.



(d).      Day Pack. When the climbers plans to be away from the camping  site for the day on a mountaineering mission, he carries a light day pack. This pack should contain the following items:-


(i)         Extra insulating layer - polypropylene, pile top, or sweater.

(ii)        Protective layer - waterproof jacket and pants, rain suit, or poncho.

(iii)       First aid kit.

(iv)       Flashlight or headlamp.

(v)        Cold weather hat or scarf.

(vi)       Rations for the time period away from the base camp.

(vii)      Survival kit.

(viii)     Sling rope or climbing harness.

(ix)       Carabiners.

(x)        Gloves.

(xi)       Climbing rope, one per climbing team.


(e).      Team Safety Pack. When a team leaves the camping site, team safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. This can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross-loaded among the team members. In the event of an injury, casualty evacuation, or unplanned camping, these items will come handy:-


(i)         Sleeping bag.

(ii)        Sleeping mat.

(iii)       Stove.

(iv)       Fuel bottle.


(f).       The Ten Essentials. Regardless of what equipment is carried, the individual military mountaineer should always carry the “ten essentials” when moving through the mountains. These are:-


(i)         Map.

(ii)       Compass, Altimeter, and or GPS.

(iii)      Sunglasses and Sunscreen. In snow-covered and glaciated terrain, sunglasses are a vital piece of equipment for preventing snow blindness. They should filter 95 to 100 percent of ultraviolet light. At least one extra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. Sunscreens should have an SPF factor of 15 or higher. For lip protection, a total UV blocking lip balm that resists sweating, washing, and licking is best.

(iv)      Extra Food. One day’s worth extra ration should be carried in case of delay caused by bad weather, injury, or navigational error.

(v)       Extra Clothing. The clothing used during the active part of a climb, and considered to be the basic climbing outfit, includes socks, boots, underwear, pants, blouse, sweater or fleece jacket, hat, gloves or mittens, and foul weather gear (waterproof, breathable outerwear or waterproof rain suit).


(aa)     Extra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long, inactive hours of an unplanned camping. Keep in mind the season when selecting this gear.


-           Extra underwear.

-           Extra hats or balaclavas.

-           Extra pair of heavy socks.

-           Extra pair of insulated mittens or gloves.

-           In winter or severe mountain conditions, extra insulation for              the upper body and the legs.


(ab)     To back up foul weather gear, bring a poncho or extra-large plastic trash bag. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter.


(vi)       Headlamp. Headlamps provide the climber a hands-free capability, which is important while climbing, working around the camp, and employing weapons systems.

(vii)      First-aid Kit. Decentralized operations, the mountain environment, rugged terrain and loose rock combined with heavy packs, sharp tools, and fatigue requires each climber to carry his own first-aid kit. Common mountaineering injuries that can be expected are punctures and abrasions with severe bleeding, a broken bone, serious sprain, and blisters. Therefore, the kit should contain at least enough material to stabilize these conditions.

(viii)     Fire Starter. Fire starting material is key to igniting wet wood for emergency campfires. Candles and heat tabs can work. These can also be used for quick warming of water or soup in a cup.

(xi)       Matches and Lighter. Lighters are handy for starting fires, but they should be backed up by matches stored in a waterproof container with a strip of sandpaper.

(x)        Knife. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured with cord to the belt, harness, or pack.


(g).      Other Essential Gear. Other essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations.


(i)        Water and Water Containers. These include wide-mouth water bottles for water collection; camel-back type water holders for hands-free hydration; and a small length of plastic tubing for water procurement at snow-melt seeps and rainwater puddles on bare rock.

(ii)        Ice Axe. The ice axe is essential for negotiating snowfields and glaciers as well as snow-covered terrain in spring and early summer. It helps in step cutting, probing, self-arrest, belays, anchors, direct-aid climbing, and ascending and descending snow and ice covered routes.

(iii)       Repair Kit. A repair kit should include:-

(aa)     Stove tools and spare parts.

(ab)     Safety pins.

(ac)     Heavy-duty thread.

(ad)     Needles.

(ae)     Cord and or wire.

(af)      Other repair items as needed.

(vi)       Insect Repellent.

(v)       Signaling Devices.

(vi)       Snow Shovel.




Carrying correct equipment can help a mountaineers accomplish his mission in given time.



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The Jawahar Institute of Mountaineering and Winter Sports (JIM&WS).

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The Jawahar Institute of Mountaineering and Winter Sports (JIM&WS)

Address:  Nunwan Pahalgam (J&K)
Telephone:    01936-243129

                        01936-243129 (Training Section)

                        01936-243002 (PA to Principal)

                        9906967831 (Training Clerk)

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